Word Recognition and Fluency: Effective Upper-Elementary Interventions for Students With Reading Difficulties


Developed with funds from The Meadows Foundation, this resource book presents lessons that teach word recognition skills and strategies in a systematic and cumulative way. Students build knowledge as lessons progress from easy to difficult skills. Previously learned skills are reviewed, linked to newly presented content, and included in the new lesson’s practice activities. The example words in practice activities were selected to be useful in students’ school and home lives. As lessons progress, students learn the skills and strategies to read an increasing number and variety of words—thus allowing students to read more sentences and longer texts. A lesson structure is also presented for teaching irregular words. This lesson structure can be used daily from the beginning to teach new irregular words for student reading.


Wanzek, J., Harbor, A., & Vaughn, S. (2010). Word recognition and fluency: Effective upper-elementary interventions for students with reading difficulties. Austin, TX: The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk.