Effects of an Early Numeracy Intervention on Struggling Kindergarteners’ Mathematics Performance


This study investigated the effects of an early numeracy intervention delivered by kindergarten teachers to students identified as having mathematics difficulties. A design of multigroup growth modeling with random assignment to intervention condition was employed. Thirty-two teachers were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. A total of 71 students participated in the study, 47 in the treatment group and 24 in the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment condition students outperformed comparison students (g* = .99) and demonstrated statistically significantly higher scores on all proximal measures of early numeracy. Also, about 80% to 100% of the variance was accounted for at the student level. Performance on distal measures was less impressive, with no significant differences between groups; the effect size was .44. Teachers rated components of the intervention highly, reflecting strong teacher satisfaction.


Bryant, B. R., Bryant, D. P., Roberts, G., & Fall, A.-M. (2016). Effects of an early numeracy intervention on struggling kindergarteners’ mathematics performance. International Journal for Research in Learning Disabilities, 3(1), 29–45.